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Behind the science

Neumentix™​

​​Herbalife​ 17 October 2023

This website and the content on it have been developed and made available for the sole purpose of providing educational information only and must not be treated or viewed as marketing material. The statements made on the website have not been evaluated by any regulatory body. The information on benefits is specifically linked to published scientific evidence and research. The content on this website must not be hyperlinked to, copied, reproduced, or otherwise distributed, in whole or in part. No action should be taken in reliance on the content.

What is Neumentix™?

Neumentix™ is a natural ingredient derived from special types of spearmint plants (1). These plant varieties are rich in polyphenols, like rosmarinic and salvianolic acids and thought to be the reason why Neumentix™ can support good cognitive health (1, 2). Polyphenols are powerful plant compounds that have numerous health benefits (3, 4). They act as antioxidants, protecting the body and neutralizing free radicals that cause damage to cells (5-8).

Pre-clinical studies suggest rosmarinic acid not only reduces the oxidative stress that causes cell damage, but may help the growth of new neurons, as well as keep the neurons already in the brain under protection (9-15). It’s also thought to help nerve cells transmit signals more quickly which can help the brain to function with greater efficiency. Neumentix™ polyphenols have been clinically tested to naturally support psychological function in adults and cognition – an important component of good brain health (19-21). Find out more about brain health.

Key benefits

Neumentix™ aims to improve cognitive and mental performance by supporting focus, concentration, reaction time and working memory, without disrupting sleep. Studies show there are benefits to healthy young adults, as well as older individuals with age-related memory issues (19-21).

The effects were studied in these two different age groups. Each was asked to take a daily dose of 900mg (2 capsules) of Neumentix™ with breakfast for 90 days (19-21).

Key benefits in the group of 18-50 year olds (19, 20)

In a randomized, double-blind clinical trial of 142 healthy, active 18 - 50 year olds,  Neumentix™ was shown to support reactive agility after 7 days of use and improve sustained attention after 30 days.

1. Reactive Agility

Benefits seen after 7 days:

Reaction and decision making was significantly faster after just 7 days of taking Neumentix™, compared to the group that used a placebo.

Reactive agility is associated with things like:

  • Reaction and decision-making time
  • Quick, unplanned change of speed or direction
  • Quick reactions

Benefits seen after 30 days:

In the trial, results were assessed using a device (a Makoto II Arena) that tracked performance and agility using lights and tones on three audio-visual towers. Designed to be struck with hands or feet, reaction time was measured in the number of positive “hits” tracking both mental and physical performance.

After 30 days, participants taking Neumentix™ had significantly better scores in the number of hits compared to those taking the placebo.

With a 5% improvement in hits rate*, Neumentix™ was shown to help physical performance.

*Calculated as a change from pre-supplementation within the Neumentix™ group minus the change from pre-supplementation with the placebo group.

What is Reactive agility and how was it assessed?

Reactive agility is an essential part of sports performance where a person reacts quickly and efficiently to a stimulus, often at high speed (23-25). It’s the ability to make split second decisions in both a physical and a mental capacity determining which way to move and how fast (26).

Reactive agility in this study was assessed using a Makoto II Arena. This unique training device evaluates cognitive and physical performance measuring reaction time on a millisecond scale (27, 28). This is significant in the field of sport where a millisecond can make a difference to response and reaction times (29-31). But it’s not just the sports arena where this matters. Reaction time is also important in everyday activities like driving a car or crossing the road (32-35).

The Makoto device uses audio and visual cues to test reaction time, mental focus, concentration, hand-eye coordination and much more by combining exercises with the proven science of Sensory Integration Therapy.

2. Sustained attention

Improvements in sustained attention were noticeable after 30 days of taking Neumentix™ versus those taking the placebo and became even more pronounced after 90 days.

Those who supplemented with Neumentix™ were found to have an 11% improvement in sustained attention after 90 days as opposed to the placebo group who showed only a 1% increase after the same amount of time.

What is Sustained attention and how was it assessed?

Sustained attention is a key part of daily life and relates to the ability to focus and concentrate on a specific task over time without getting distracted (22). Failure to maintain this concentration can be as mundane as forgetting what you’ve just read or as critical as finding it difficult to pay attention while driving for long periods.

Sustained attention in this study was assessed using a cognitive battery test (CNS Vital Signs) originally developed for NASA to measure various brain functions (36). The test evaluates key cognitive abilities such as attention, memory and concentration through a series of questions and simple tasks.

Key benefits in the group of 50-70 year olds (21)

In a randomized, double-blind clinical trial of 90 older adults aged between 50 – 70, with age-related cognitive decline, Neumentix™ was shown to support working memory as well as ease in falling asleep after 90 days of use.

This study also suggested there may be potential for Neumentix™ to improve vitality feelings and alertness after waking, but more research is required to understand the magnitude of these findings.

1. Working memory

The studies show that Neumentix™ can strengthen our working memory, or the ability to juggle many tasks and information at once by up to 15%, in people with age related memory issues, over those taking the placebo. Spatial working memory, such as remembering where you put your car keys after several minutes, improved by 9%.

What is Working memory and how was it assessed?

Working memory is the system for temporarily storing and managing the information required to carry out complex cognitive tasks like learning, reasoning, and comprehension (37).

Examples of working memory tasks might include remembering what someone has just said to you and reciting it backwards or baking a cake without adding the same ingredient twice (37, 38).

Working memory in this trial was assessed using a Cognitive Drug Research System. This is a set of 11 individual tests, spanning tasks ranging from word recall and picture recognition to information processing.

2. Sleep support

Improvements in falling asleep were assessed using a specific sleep quality questionnaire. Those taking Neumentix™ reported getting to sleep easier and faster at night than those taking a placebo.

More information on brain health and tips on how to keep your mind healthy.

References

  1. Narasimhamoorthy B, Zhao LQ, Liu X, Yang W, Greaves JA. Differences in the chemotype of two native spearmint clonal lines selected for rosmarinic acid accumulation in comparison to commercially grown native spearmint. Ind Crops Prod. 2015;63:87-91.
  2. Cirlini M, Mena P, Tassotti M, Herrlinger KA, Nieman KM, Dall'Asta C, et al. Phenolic and Volatile Composition of a Dry Spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) Extract. Molecules. 2016;21(8):1007.
  3. Abbas M, Saeed F, Anjum FM, Afzaal M, Tufail T, Bashir MS, et al. Natural polyphenols: An overview. Int J Food Prop. 2017;20(8):1689-99.
  4. Rana A, Samtiya M, Dhewa T, Mishra V, Aluko RE. Health benefits of polyphenols: A concise review. J Food Biochem. 2022;46(10):e14264.
  5. Pandey KB, Rizvi SI. Plant polyphenols as dietary antioxidants in human health and disease. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2009;2(5):270-8.
  6. Hussain T, Tan B, Yin Y, Blachier F, Tossou MC, Rahu N. Oxidative Stress and Inflammation: What Polyphenols Can Do for Us? Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016;2016:7432797.
  7. Mahendran G, Verma SK, Rahman LU. The traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of spearmint (Mentha spicata L.): A review. J Ethnopharmacol. 2021;278:114266.
  8. Dorman HJ, Koşar M, Kahlos K, Holm Y, Hiltunen R. Antioxidant properties and composition of aqueous extracts from Mentha species, hybrids, varieties, and cultivars. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51(16):4563-9.
  9. Dinan TG, Stanton C, Long-Smith C, Kennedy P, Cryan JF, Cowan CSM, et al. Feeding melancholic microbes: MyNewGut recommendations on diet and mood. Clin Nutr. 2019;38(5):1995-2001.
  10. Farr SA, Niehoff ML, Ceddia MA, Herrlinger KA, Lewis BJ, Feng S, et al. Effect of botanical extracts containing carnosic acid or rosmarinic acid on learning and memory in SAMP8 mice. Physiol Behav. 2016;165:328-38.
  11. Fachel FNS, Michels LR, Azambuja JH, Lenz GS, Gelsleichter NE, Endres M, et al. Chitosan-coated rosmarinic acid nanoemulsion nasal administration protects against LPS-induced memory deficit, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress in Wistar rats. Neurochem Int. 2020;141:104875.
  12. Habtemariam S. Molecular Pharmacology of Rosmarinic and Salvianolic Acids: Potential Seeds for Alzheimer's and Vascular Dementia Drugs. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(2):458.
  13. Fachel FNS, Schuh RS, Veras KS, Bassani VL, Koester LS, Henriques AT, et al. An overview of the neuroprotective potential of rosmarinic acid and its association with nanotechnology-based delivery systems: A novel approach to treating neurodegenerative disorders. Neurochem Int. 2019;122:47-58.
  14. Ferdousi F, Sasaki K, Uchida Y, Ohkohchi N, Zheng YW, Isoda H. Exploring the Potential Role of Rosmarinic Acid in Neuronal Differentiation of Human Amnion Epithelial Cells by Microarray Gene Expression Profiling. Front Neurosci. 2019;13:779.
  15. Li M, Cui M-M, Kenechukwu NA, Gu Y-W, Chen Y-L, Zhong S-J, et al. Rosmarinic acid ameliorates hypoxia/ischemia induced cognitive deficits and promotes remyelination. Neural Regen Res. 2020;15(5).
  16. Hase T, Shishido S, Yamamoto S, Yamashita R, Nukima H, Taira S, et al. Rosmarinic acid suppresses Alzheimer's disease development by reducing amyloid β aggregation by increasing monoamine secretion. Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):8711.
  17. Sasaki K, El Omri A, Kondo S, Han J, Isoda H. Rosmarinus officinalis polyphenols produce anti-depressant like effect through monoaminergic and cholinergic functions modulation. Behav Brain Res. 2013;238:86-94.
  18. Kondo S, El Omri A, Han J, Isoda H. Antidepressant-like effects of rosmarinic acid through mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor modulation. Journal of Functional Foods. 2015;14:758-66.
  19. Falcone PH, Nieman KM, Tribby AC, Vogel RM, Joy JM, Moon JR, et al. The attention-enhancing effects of spearmint extract supplementation in healthy men and women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial. Nutr Res. 2019;64:24-38.
  20. Falcone PH, Tribby AC, Vogel RM, Joy JM, Moon JR, Slayton CA, et al. Efficacy of a nootropic spearmint extract on reactive agility: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2018;15(1):58.
  21. Herrlinger KA, Nieman KM, Sanoshy KD, Fonseca BA, Lasrado JA, Schild AL, et al. Spearmint Extract Improves Working Memory in Men and Women with Age-Associated Memory Impairment. J Altern Complement Med. 2018;24(1):37-47.
  22. Sarter M, Givens B, Bruno JP. The cognitive neuroscience of sustained attention: where top-down meets bottom-up. Brain Res Rev. 2001;35(2):146-60.
  23. Scanlan A, Humphries B, Tucker PS, Dalbo V. The influence of physical and cognitive factors on reactive agility performance in men basketball players. J Sports Sci. 2014;32(4):367-74.
  24. Lockie RG, Jeffriess MD, McGann TS, Callaghan SJ, Schultz AB. Planned and reactive agility performance in semiprofessional and amateur basketball players. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2014;9(5):766-71.
  25. Young W, Rogers N. Effects of small-sided game and change-of-direction training on reactive agility and change-of-direction speed. J Sports Sci. 2014;32(4):307-14.
  26. Pehar M, Sisic N, Sekulic D, Coh M, Uljevic O, Spasic M, et al. Analyzing the relationship between anthropometric and motor indices with basketball specific pre-planned and non-planned agility performances. J Sports Med Phys Fit. 2018;58(7-8):1037-44.
  27. Hoffman JR, Kang J, Ratamess NA, Hoffman MW, Tranchina CP, Faigenbaum AD. Examination of a pre-exercise, high energy supplement on exercise performance. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2009;6(1):2.
  28. Spradley BD, Crowley KR, Tai C-Y, Kendall KL, Fukuda DH, Esposito EN, et al. Ingesting a pre-workout supplement containing caffeine, B-vitamins, amino acids, creatine, and beta-alanine before exercise delays fatigue while improving reaction time and muscular endurance. Nutrition & Metabolism. 2012;9(1):28.
  29. Pavlović R. The importance of Reaction Time in Athletics: Influence on the Results of Sprint Runs of World Championships Finalists. Central European Journal of Sport Sciences and Medicine. 2021;34:53-65.
  30. Atan T, Akyol P. Reaction Times of Different Branch Athletes and Correlation between Reaction Time Parameters. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2014;116:2886-9.
  31. Castellar C, Pradas F, Carrasco L, La Torre AD, González-Jurado JA. Analysis of reaction time and lateral displacements in national level table tennis players: are they predictive of sport performance? International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport. 2019;19(4):467-77.
  32. Harald Baayen R, Milin P. Analyzing reaction times. International Journal of Psychological Research. 2010;3(2):12-28.
  33. Balakrishnan G, Uppinakudru G, Girwar Singh G, Bangera S, Dutt Raghavendra A, Thangavel D. A comparative study on visual choice reaction time for different colors in females. Neurol Res Int. 2014;2014:301473.
  34. Podoprigora N, Stepina P, Dobromirov V, Kotikov J. Determination of driver’s reaction time in expert studies of road traffic accidents using software and hardware complex. Transportation Research Procedia. 2020;50:538-44.
  35. Alimohammadi I, Zokaei M, Sandrock S. The Effect of Road Traffic Noise on Reaction Time. Health Promot Perspect. 2015;5(3):207-14.
  36. Basner M, Savitt A, Moore TM, Port AM, McGuire S, Ecker AJ, et al. Development and Validation of the Cognition Test Battery for Spaceflight. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2015;86(11):942-52.
  37. Baddeley A. Working Memory: Theories, Models, and Controversies. Annual Review of Psychology. 2011;63(1):1-29.
  38. Cowan N. What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory? Prog Brain Res. 2008;169:323-38.

This website and the content on it have been developed and made available for the sole purpose of providing educational information only and must not be treated or viewed as marketing material. The statements made on the website have not been evaluated by any regulatory body. The information on benefits is specifically linked to published scientific evidence and research. The content on this website must not be hyperlinked to, copied, reproduced, or otherwise distributed, in whole or in part. No action should be taken in reliance on the content.

What is Neumentix™?

Neumentix™ is a natural ingredient derived from special types of spearmint plants (1). These plant varieties are rich in polyphenols, like rosmarinic and salvianolic acids and thought to be the reason why Neumentix™ can support good cognitive health (1, 2). Polyphenols are powerful plant compounds that have numerous health benefits (3, 4). They act as antioxidants, protecting the body and neutralizing free radicals that cause damage to cells (5-8).

Pre-clinical studies suggest rosmarinic acid not only reduces the oxidative stress that causes cell damage, but may help the growth of new neurons, as well as keep the neurons already in the brain under protection (9-15). It’s also thought to help nerve cells transmit signals more quickly which can help the brain to function with greater efficiency. Neumentix™ polyphenols have been clinically tested to naturally support psychological function in adults and cognition – an important component of good brain health (19-21). Find out more about brain health.

Key benefits

Neumentix™ aims to improve cognitive and mental performance by supporting focus, concentration, reaction time and working memory, without disrupting sleep. Studies show there are benefits to healthy young adults, as well as older individuals with age-related memory issues (19-21).

The effects were studied in these two different age groups. Each was asked to take a daily dose of 900mg (2 capsules) of Neumentix™ with breakfast for 90 days (19-21).

Key benefits in the group of 18-50 year olds (19, 20)

In a randomized, double-blind clinical trial of 142 healthy, active 18 - 50 year olds,  Neumentix™ was shown to support reactive agility after 7 days of use and improve sustained attention after 30 days.

1. Reactive Agility

Benefits seen after 7 days:

Reaction and decision making was significantly faster after just 7 days of taking Neumentix™, compared to the group that used a placebo.

Reactive agility is associated with things like:

  • Reaction and decision-making time
  • Quick, unplanned change of speed or direction
  • Quick reactions

Benefits seen after 30 days:

In the trial, results were assessed using a device (a Makoto II Arena) that tracked performance and agility using lights and tones on three audio-visual towers. Designed to be struck with hands or feet, reaction time was measured in the number of positive “hits” tracking both mental and physical performance.

After 30 days, participants taking Neumentix™ had significantly better scores in the number of hits compared to those taking the placebo.

With a 5% improvement in hits rate*, Neumentix™ was shown to help physical performance.

*Calculated as a change from pre-supplementation within the Neumentix™ group minus the change from pre-supplementation with the placebo group.

What is Reactive agility and how was it assessed?

Reactive agility is an essential part of sports performance where a person reacts quickly and efficiently to a stimulus, often at high speed (23-25). It’s the ability to make split second decisions in both a physical and a mental capacity determining which way to move and how fast (26).

Reactive agility in this study was assessed using a Makoto II Arena. This unique training device evaluates cognitive and physical performance measuring reaction time on a millisecond scale (27, 28). This is significant in the field of sport where a millisecond can make a difference to response and reaction times (29-31). But it’s not just the sports arena where this matters. Reaction time is also important in everyday activities like driving a car or crossing the road (32-35).

The Makoto device uses audio and visual cues to test reaction time, mental focus, concentration, hand-eye coordination and much more by combining exercises with the proven science of Sensory Integration Therapy.

2. Sustained attention

Improvements in sustained attention were noticeable after 30 days of taking Neumentix™ versus those taking the placebo and became even more pronounced after 90 days.

Those who supplemented with Neumentix™ were found to have an 11% improvement in sustained attention after 90 days as opposed to the placebo group who showed only a 1% increase after the same amount of time.

What is Sustained attention and how was it assessed?

Sustained attention is a key part of daily life and relates to the ability to focus and concentrate on a specific task over time without getting distracted (22). Failure to maintain this concentration can be as mundane as forgetting what you’ve just read or as critical as finding it difficult to pay attention while driving for long periods.

Sustained attention in this study was assessed using a cognitive battery test (CNS Vital Signs) originally developed for NASA to measure various brain functions (36). The test evaluates key cognitive abilities such as attention, memory and concentration through a series of questions and simple tasks.

Key benefits in the group of 50-70 year olds (21)

In a randomized, double-blind clinical trial of 90 older adults aged between 50 – 70, with age-related cognitive decline, Neumentix™ was shown to support working memory as well as ease in falling asleep after 90 days of use.

This study also suggested there may be potential for Neumentix™ to improve vitality feelings and alertness after waking, but more research is required to understand the magnitude of these findings.

1. Working memory

The studies show that Neumentix™ can strengthen our working memory, or the ability to juggle many tasks and information at once by up to 15%, in people with age related memory issues, over those taking the placebo. Spatial working memory, such as remembering where you put your car keys after several minutes, improved by 9%.

What is Working memory and how was it assessed?

Working memory is the system for temporarily storing and managing the information required to carry out complex cognitive tasks like learning, reasoning, and comprehension (37).

Examples of working memory tasks might include remembering what someone has just said to you and reciting it backwards or baking a cake without adding the same ingredient twice (37, 38).

Working memory in this trial was assessed using a Cognitive Drug Research System. This is a set of 11 individual tests, spanning tasks ranging from word recall and picture recognition to information processing.

2. Sleep support

Improvements in falling asleep were assessed using a specific sleep quality questionnaire. Those taking Neumentix™ reported getting to sleep easier and faster at night than those taking a placebo.

More information on brain health and tips on how to keep your mind healthy.

References

  1. Narasimhamoorthy B, Zhao LQ, Liu X, Yang W, Greaves JA. Differences in the chemotype of two native spearmint clonal lines selected for rosmarinic acid accumulation in comparison to commercially grown native spearmint. Ind Crops Prod. 2015;63:87-91.
  2. Cirlini M, Mena P, Tassotti M, Herrlinger KA, Nieman KM, Dall'Asta C, et al. Phenolic and Volatile Composition of a Dry Spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) Extract. Molecules. 2016;21(8):1007.
  3. Abbas M, Saeed F, Anjum FM, Afzaal M, Tufail T, Bashir MS, et al. Natural polyphenols: An overview. Int J Food Prop. 2017;20(8):1689-99.
  4. Rana A, Samtiya M, Dhewa T, Mishra V, Aluko RE. Health benefits of polyphenols: A concise review. J Food Biochem. 2022;46(10):e14264.
  5. Pandey KB, Rizvi SI. Plant polyphenols as dietary antioxidants in human health and disease. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2009;2(5):270-8.
  6. Hussain T, Tan B, Yin Y, Blachier F, Tossou MC, Rahu N. Oxidative Stress and Inflammation: What Polyphenols Can Do for Us? Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2016;2016:7432797.
  7. Mahendran G, Verma SK, Rahman LU. The traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology of spearmint (Mentha spicata L.): A review. J Ethnopharmacol. 2021;278:114266.
  8. Dorman HJ, Koşar M, Kahlos K, Holm Y, Hiltunen R. Antioxidant properties and composition of aqueous extracts from Mentha species, hybrids, varieties, and cultivars. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51(16):4563-9.
  9. Dinan TG, Stanton C, Long-Smith C, Kennedy P, Cryan JF, Cowan CSM, et al. Feeding melancholic microbes: MyNewGut recommendations on diet and mood. Clin Nutr. 2019;38(5):1995-2001.
  10. Farr SA, Niehoff ML, Ceddia MA, Herrlinger KA, Lewis BJ, Feng S, et al. Effect of botanical extracts containing carnosic acid or rosmarinic acid on learning and memory in SAMP8 mice. Physiol Behav. 2016;165:328-38.
  11. Fachel FNS, Michels LR, Azambuja JH, Lenz GS, Gelsleichter NE, Endres M, et al. Chitosan-coated rosmarinic acid nanoemulsion nasal administration protects against LPS-induced memory deficit, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress in Wistar rats. Neurochem Int. 2020;141:104875.
  12. Habtemariam S. Molecular Pharmacology of Rosmarinic and Salvianolic Acids: Potential Seeds for Alzheimer's and Vascular Dementia Drugs. Int J Mol Sci. 2018;19(2):458.
  13. Fachel FNS, Schuh RS, Veras KS, Bassani VL, Koester LS, Henriques AT, et al. An overview of the neuroprotective potential of rosmarinic acid and its association with nanotechnology-based delivery systems: A novel approach to treating neurodegenerative disorders. Neurochem Int. 2019;122:47-58.
  14. Ferdousi F, Sasaki K, Uchida Y, Ohkohchi N, Zheng YW, Isoda H. Exploring the Potential Role of Rosmarinic Acid in Neuronal Differentiation of Human Amnion Epithelial Cells by Microarray Gene Expression Profiling. Front Neurosci. 2019;13:779.
  15. Li M, Cui M-M, Kenechukwu NA, Gu Y-W, Chen Y-L, Zhong S-J, et al. Rosmarinic acid ameliorates hypoxia/ischemia induced cognitive deficits and promotes remyelination. Neural Regen Res. 2020;15(5).
  16. Hase T, Shishido S, Yamamoto S, Yamashita R, Nukima H, Taira S, et al. Rosmarinic acid suppresses Alzheimer's disease development by reducing amyloid β aggregation by increasing monoamine secretion. Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):8711.
  17. Sasaki K, El Omri A, Kondo S, Han J, Isoda H. Rosmarinus officinalis polyphenols produce anti-depressant like effect through monoaminergic and cholinergic functions modulation. Behav Brain Res. 2013;238:86-94.
  18. Kondo S, El Omri A, Han J, Isoda H. Antidepressant-like effects of rosmarinic acid through mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor modulation. Journal of Functional Foods. 2015;14:758-66.
  19. Falcone PH, Nieman KM, Tribby AC, Vogel RM, Joy JM, Moon JR, et al. The attention-enhancing effects of spearmint extract supplementation in healthy men and women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial. Nutr Res. 2019;64:24-38.
  20. Falcone PH, Tribby AC, Vogel RM, Joy JM, Moon JR, Slayton CA, et al. Efficacy of a nootropic spearmint extract on reactive agility: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. 2018;15(1):58.
  21. Herrlinger KA, Nieman KM, Sanoshy KD, Fonseca BA, Lasrado JA, Schild AL, et al. Spearmint Extract Improves Working Memory in Men and Women with Age-Associated Memory Impairment. J Altern Complement Med. 2018;24(1):37-47.
  22. Sarter M, Givens B, Bruno JP. The cognitive neuroscience of sustained attention: where top-down meets bottom-up. Brain Res Rev. 2001;35(2):146-60.
  23. Scanlan A, Humphries B, Tucker PS, Dalbo V. The influence of physical and cognitive factors on reactive agility performance in men basketball players. J Sports Sci. 2014;32(4):367-74.
  24. Lockie RG, Jeffriess MD, McGann TS, Callaghan SJ, Schultz AB. Planned and reactive agility performance in semiprofessional and amateur basketball players. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2014;9(5):766-71.
  25. Young W, Rogers N. Effects of small-sided game and change-of-direction training on reactive agility and change-of-direction speed. J Sports Sci. 2014;32(4):307-14.
  26. Pehar M, Sisic N, Sekulic D, Coh M, Uljevic O, Spasic M, et al. Analyzing the relationship between anthropometric and motor indices with basketball specific pre-planned and non-planned agility performances. J Sports Med Phys Fit. 2018;58(7-8):1037-44.
  27. Hoffman JR, Kang J, Ratamess NA, Hoffman MW, Tranchina CP, Faigenbaum AD. Examination of a pre-exercise, high energy supplement on exercise performance. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2009;6(1):2.
  28. Spradley BD, Crowley KR, Tai C-Y, Kendall KL, Fukuda DH, Esposito EN, et al. Ingesting a pre-workout supplement containing caffeine, B-vitamins, amino acids, creatine, and beta-alanine before exercise delays fatigue while improving reaction time and muscular endurance. Nutrition & Metabolism. 2012;9(1):28.
  29. Pavlović R. The importance of Reaction Time in Athletics: Influence on the Results of Sprint Runs of World Championships Finalists. Central European Journal of Sport Sciences and Medicine. 2021;34:53-65.
  30. Atan T, Akyol P. Reaction Times of Different Branch Athletes and Correlation between Reaction Time Parameters. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2014;116:2886-9.
  31. Castellar C, Pradas F, Carrasco L, La Torre AD, González-Jurado JA. Analysis of reaction time and lateral displacements in national level table tennis players: are they predictive of sport performance? International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport. 2019;19(4):467-77.
  32. Harald Baayen R, Milin P. Analyzing reaction times. International Journal of Psychological Research. 2010;3(2):12-28.
  33. Balakrishnan G, Uppinakudru G, Girwar Singh G, Bangera S, Dutt Raghavendra A, Thangavel D. A comparative study on visual choice reaction time for different colors in females. Neurol Res Int. 2014;2014:301473.
  34. Podoprigora N, Stepina P, Dobromirov V, Kotikov J. Determination of driver’s reaction time in expert studies of road traffic accidents using software and hardware complex. Transportation Research Procedia. 2020;50:538-44.
  35. Alimohammadi I, Zokaei M, Sandrock S. The Effect of Road Traffic Noise on Reaction Time. Health Promot Perspect. 2015;5(3):207-14.
  36. Basner M, Savitt A, Moore TM, Port AM, McGuire S, Ecker AJ, et al. Development and Validation of the Cognition Test Battery for Spaceflight. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2015;86(11):942-52.
  37. Baddeley A. Working Memory: Theories, Models, and Controversies. Annual Review of Psychology. 2011;63(1):1-29.
  38. Cowan N. What are the differences between long-term, short-term, and working memory? Prog Brain Res. 2008;169:323-38.